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''Naturam ducem sequentes numquam aberrarimus''

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  1. DUNG BEETLES AND POLLİNATİON
For some plant species, dung beetles are crucial (and sometimes obligate) pollinators; this is the case for some decay-scented flowers belonging to the plant families Lowiaceae and Araceae (Nichols et al. 2008). One of the first scientific observations of dung beetle dependent pollination of a carrion-scented plant (Typhonium tribolatum, Araceae) by Gleghorn in India was cited in Arrow (1931); the dung beetles involved are Onthophagus tarandus and Caccobius diminituvus. In the Lebanon, it was reported by Gibernau et al. (2004) that the two dung beetles species O. ovatus and O. sellatus pollinate the dung/carrion-scented plant Arum dioscordis (Araceae) and Meeuse and Hatch (1960) observed beetle pollination in the plant genera  Dracunculus and Sauromatum (Araceae). Four different carrion-feeding Onthophagus species (O. waterstradti, O. fujii, O. aurifex, O. vulpes) and two species of Paragymnopleurus (P. pauliani, P. striatus) were also found to be obligate pollinators of Orchidantha inquei, a Bornean carrion-scented member of the highly relictual plant family Lowiaceae (Sakai and Inoue 1999). This flower does not secret any nectar and the visiting beetles do not seem to receive any other reward. The beetles presumably follow the dung-like odour of the flower and then search the flowers for dung. Since the flower does not provide any reward in form of food or protection to the beetles, this form of pollinator attraction has been called “deceit pollination” (Sakai and Inoue 1999). *
Photo: The Dung Beetle Paragymnopleurus pauliani (Scarabaeidae) Visiting the Zygomorphic Flower of Orchidantha inouei (Lowiaceae) **
* : Scholtz, C. H., Davis, A. L. V. and Kryger, U., 2009, Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Dung Beetles. Pensoft Publisher.
** : Sakai, S., Inoue, T., 1999. A new pollination system: Dung-beetlepollination discovered in Orchidantha inouei (Lowiaceae, Zingiberales) in Sarawak, Malaysia. American Journal of Botany 86, 56–61.

    DUNG BEETLES AND POLLİNATİON

    For some plant species, dung beetles are crucial (and sometimes obligate) pollinators; this is the case for some decay-scented flowers belonging to the plant families Lowiaceae and Araceae (Nichols et al. 2008). One of the first scientific observations of dung beetle dependent pollination of a carrion-scented plant (Typhonium tribolatum, Araceae) by Gleghorn in India was cited in Arrow (1931); the dung beetles involved are Onthophagus tarandus and Caccobius diminituvus. In the Lebanon, it was reported by Gibernau et al. (2004) that the two dung beetles species O. ovatus and O. sellatus pollinate the dung/carrion-scented plant Arum dioscordis (Araceae) and Meeuse and Hatch (1960) observed beetle pollination in the plant genera  Dracunculus and Sauromatum (Araceae). Four different carrion-feeding Onthophagus species (O. waterstradti, O. fujii, O. aurifex, O. vulpes) and two species of Paragymnopleurus (P. pauliani, P. striatus) were also found to be obligate pollinators of Orchidantha inquei, a Bornean carrion-scented member of the highly relictual plant family Lowiaceae (Sakai and Inoue 1999). This flower does not secret any nectar and the visiting beetles do not seem to receive any other reward. The beetles presumably follow the dung-like odour of the flower and then search the flowers for dung. Since the flower does not provide any reward in form of food or protection to the beetles, this form of pollinator attraction has been called “deceit pollination” (Sakai and Inoue 1999). *

    Photo: The Dung Beetle Paragymnopleurus pauliani (Scarabaeidae) Visiting the Zygomorphic Flower of Orchidantha inouei (Lowiaceae) **

    * : Scholtz, C. H., Davis, A. L. V. and Kryger, U., 2009, Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Dung Beetles. Pensoft Publisher.

    ** : Sakai, S., Inoue, T., 1999. A new pollination system: Dung-beetle
    pollination discovered in Orchidantha inouei (Lowiaceae, Zingiberales) in Sarawak, Malaysia. American Journal of Botany 86, 56–61.

     
  2. Bee on Stapelia glanduliflora flower (a South African Stapeliad flower from Clanwilliam in the Western Cape).Even though bees are not known to pollinate Stapeliad flowers (Stapeliads attract flies for pollination), this bee decided to take a look anyway.
(photo/text by Martin_Heigan on Flickr)

    Bee on Stapelia glanduliflora flower (a South African Stapeliad flower from Clanwilliam in the Western Cape).Even though bees are not known to pollinate Stapeliad flowers (Stapeliads attract flies for pollination), this bee decided to take a look anyway.

    (photo/text by Martin_Heigan on Flickr)

     
  3. Blow flies on Stapelia grandiflora flower
Blow flies pollinating a Stapelia grandiflora flower (from Calitzdorp Dam, Little Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa). The flies are being tricked by the flower, and their maggot eggs won’t survive as the flower will die soon (and the flower is not really a suitable host or food for the maggots).
(photo/text by Martin_Heigan on Flickr)

    Blow flies on Stapelia grandiflora flower

    Blow flies pollinating a Stapelia grandiflora flower (from Calitzdorp Dam, Little Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa).

    The flies are being tricked by the flower, and their maggot eggs won’t survive as the flower will die soon (and the flower is not really a suitable host or food for the maggots).

    (photo/text by Martin_Heigan on Flickr)

     
  4. skepttv:

    The beauty of pollination

    Pollination: it’s vital to life on Earth, but largely unseen by the human eye. Filmmaker Louie Schwartzberg shows us the intricate world of pollen and pollinators with gorgeous high-speed images from his film “Wings of Life,” inspired by the vanishing of one of nature’s primary pollinators, the honeybee.

    via scienceisbeauty:

    Absolutely awsome video: The beauty of pollination.

    (Taken from TED Talks. Louie Schwartzberg: The hidden beauty of pollination)